In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious and the Bestower of Mercy
Verily, all good praises are for Allah, we seek His help and His forgiveness. We seek refuge with Allah from the evil of our own souls and from our bad deeds. Whomsoever Allah guides will never be led astray, and whomsoever Allah leaves astray, no one can guide. I bear witness that there is no god but Allah, He is alone without any partner, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger.
“O you who believe! Fear Allah as He should be feared, and die not except in a state of Islam (as Muslims) with complete submission to Allah.” [Surah Ali Imran, 3:102]
“O mankind! Be dutiful to your Lord, Who created you from a single person, and from him He created his wife, and from them both He created many men and women, and fear Allah through Whom you demand your mutual (rights), and (do not cut the relations of) the wombs (kinship) Surely, Allah is Ever an All-Watcher over you).” [Surah An-Nisa’, 4:1]
“O you who believe! Keep your duty to Allah and fear Him, and speak (always) the truth. He will direct you to do righteous good deeds and will forgive you your sins. And whosoever obeys Allah and His Messenger (Pbuh) has indeed achieved a great achievement (i.e. he will be saved from the Hellfire and made to enter Paradise).” [Surah Al-Ahzab, 33:70-71]
Verily the best of speech is the Book of Allah and the best of guidance is the guidance of Muhammad (Pbuh). The worst of affairs are the newly-invented affairs (in the religion) and every newly invented affair in the religion is an innovation and every innovation is misguidance and all misguidance is in the hellfire. As to what proceeds:
Servants of Allah! Allah, the Mighty and Majestic, has said:
“That they may witness benefits for themselves and mention the name of Allah on known days…” (Surah al-Hajj: 28)
And He, the Most High. said:
“In it are clear signs [such as] the standing place of Ibrahim (Abraham). And whoever enters it shall be safe. And [due] to Allah from the people is a pilgrimage to the House – for whoever is able to find thereto a way. But whoever disbelieves – then indeed, Allah is free from need of the worlds.” (Surah Ali Imran: 97)
Allah, the Most High, said:
“And proclaim to the people the Hajj [pilgrimage]; they will come to you on foot and on every lean camel; they will come from every distant [mountain] pass.” (Surah al-Hajj: 27)
Ibn Umar (RA) said that Allah’s Messenger (Pbuh) said:
“Islam is built upon five: To testify that none has the right of worship except Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah; to establish the Salah (Prayer); to pay the Zakah; to perform Hajj and to fast the month of Ramadan.” (Bukhari and Muslim)
Abu Hurairah (RA) said that Allah’s Messenger (Pbuh) said in a Khutbah:
“O people! Indeed Allah has made Hajj obligatory upon you, so perform the Hajj.” A man said: “Every year, O Allah’s Messenger?” So he stayed quiet, until the man repeated himself three times. So Allah’s Messenger (Pbuh) said: “If I say yes, it would become obligatory, and you would not be able.” (Muslim)
In the narration of Ibn Majah:
“No. If I was to say yes it would have become obligatory upon you.”
And in another narration:
“Rather it is once and whoever can perform voluntary Hajj [after the one obligation] let him do so.” (Ibn Majah)
Abu Sa’id al-Khudri (RA) said that Allah’s Messenger (Pbuh) said:
“Allah, the Most High, said: Indeed I have given a servant good health in his body and I have given him [provision and] an expansive sustenance, yet five years have passed and he has not visited me as one performing Hajj.” (As-Sahihah 4/22, Ibn Hibban, no. 3703).
Brothers and Sisters! All of these verses and Hadiths show us the importance of Hajj – that it is a Pillar of Islam and a mighty obligation. The most correct opinion of the scholars is that Hajj becomes an obligation with immediate effect for the one who has ability. The one who has ability to reach the House of Allah in Makkah and yet refuses to perform Hajj is in a grave situation. He does not know whether this opportunity will come to him again – so he misses out on this tremendous pillar.
From Ibn Abbas or al-Fadl that Allah’s Messenger (Pbuh) said:
“Whoever intends to perform Hajj, then let him make haste, for he may fall sick, lose his mount, or be faced with some need.” (Ibn Majah)
Fellow Muslims! From The Virtues Of Hajj are as follows:
1. Hajj wipes out whatever sins were previously committed. It is reported from Amr Ibn al-As (RA) regarding him becoming a Muslim, he said:
“I remember when no one was more hated to me than Allah’s Messenger (Pbuh) and there was nothing I wanted more than to overpower him and kill him. If I had died at that time, I would have been one of the people of Hellfire. But when Allah placed Islam in my heart, I came to the Prophet and said: “Hold out your right hand so I may pledge my allegiance to you.” So he held out his right hand, but I withdrew my hand. He (Pbuh) said: “What is the matter O Amr?” I said: “I wish to stipulate a condition.” He said: “What is it that you wish to stipulate?” I said: “That I will be forgiven.” So the Messenger (Pbuh) said: “Do you not know, O Amr, that Islam wipes away whatever came before it, Hijrah wipes away whatever came before it, and that Hajj wipes away what came before it?” Then no man was more beloved to me than the Messenger of Allah (Pbuh), and no one was dearer in my eyes. I could not even look him in the eye due to awe and reverence. If I was asked to describe him, I could not do so because I could not look him in the eye. If I had died in that state, I hope that I would have been from the People of Paradise. Then we were appointed to positions [of authority] in which I do not know what my status is. If I die, do not let any wailing woman or fire accompany me. When you bury me, fill the grave well, with earth over me – then stay near my grave for the length of time it takes to slaughter a camel and distribute its meat, so that I may be comforted by you and I see how I will answer the messengers of my Lord (the Angels).” (Muslim)
Abu Hurairah (RA) narrated that Allah’s Messenger (Pbuh) said:
“Whoever performs Hajj for Allah without indulging in sexual passions and without committing sin, he will return home like the day his mother gave birth to him.” (Bukhari and Muslim)
2. Hajj is the most virtuous act after Iman and Jihad.
Abu Hurairah (RA) narrated that Allah’s Messenger (Pbuh) was asked:
“Which deed is most virtuous?” He replied: “Iman in Allah and His Messenger.” It was said: “Then what?” He responded: “Jihad in the Path of Allah.” He was asked: “Then what?” He said: “A righteous accepted Hajj.” (Bukhari and Muslim)
3. The wealth that is spent upon Hajj multiples the reward for the one who spends it just as the reward of the Mujahid is multiplied.
Buraidah (RA) stated that the Prophet (Pbuh) said:
“Spending one’s wealth for Hajj is like spending it in Allah’s cause, it is multiplied by seven hundred.” (Musnad of Imam Ahmad)
4. If one’s Hajj is performed sincerely for Allah’s sake, in accordance to the Sunnah of the Prophet (Pbuh) using wealth from good Halal earnings, then the reward is Jannah. Abu Hurairah (RA) said that Allah’s Messenger (Pbuh) said:
“An Umrah to an Umrah is an expiation for whatever sins are committed between them, and there is no reward for the righteous accepted Hajj except Paradise.”
5. Performing Hajj and Umrah is from the greatest means of avoiding poverty and gaining wealth. Ibn Abbas (RA) said that Allah’s Messenger (Pbuh) said:
“Follow up between the Hajj and Umrah consecutively for they remove poverty and sin as the bellows remove impurities from iron.” (An-Nasa’i)
Virtue of the Du’a of the al Haajj (Pilgrim):
Ibn Umar (RA) said that Allah’s Messenger (Pbuh) said:
“The pilgrim performing Hajj and Umrah are a delegation to Allah. He invited them and they answered his invitation – and they ask Him and He gives.” (Ibn Majah)
Umm Darda (RA) said to her son-in-law, Safwan Ibn Abdullah: “Do you intend to make Hajj this year?” He said: “Yes.” So she said: “Then make du’a to Allah for us to grant us goodness for the Prophet (Pbuh) used to say: “The supplication of a man for his brother in his absence will be answered. By his head is an Angel who says Ameen to his supplication. And each time he prays for his brother, the Angel says: “Ameen, and the same to you.” (Ibn Majah)
Servants of Allah! The Hajj is the pilgrimage to Makkah and it is the fifth pillar of Islam. The pilgrimage is a sacred physical and spiritual journey made by a Muslim to the revered sites in and around Makkah, for the purpose of worshipping Allah alone – following in those actions, the pilgrimage made to Makkah by the Prophet Muhammad and the Prophets who came before him. This journey is once in a lifetime obligation for those Muslims who have reached the age of adulthood, are healthy and able-bodied, and have wealth sufficient to perform Hajj. For many Muslims it is simply too expensive, so they save up until they are able. During one week each year, from the 8 to the 13 of Dhul-Hijjah up to three million Muslims come to the Ka’bah (and other places in and around Makkah) as a part of the Hajj ritual.
Brothers and sisters! The simple step by step practical way to perform Hajj is as follows:
Fellow Muslims! Ihram is the state entered into at the Miqat in which certain acts and types of clothing are forbidden. A Miqat is a designated place at which one must assume the Ihram for Umrah and Hajj.
1. It is recommended for anyone going for Hajj or Umrah to take a bath for Ihram – even for a menstruating woman.
2. The man wears an upper garment and a lower garment, sandals or any footwear that does not cover the anklebone.
3. The man does not wear anything that covers his head. As for the woman, she wears her normal clothing and a Jilbab in accordance to Islamic guidelines, except that she should not tie on the face-veil and not wear gloves. It is permissible for the woman to cover her face, but she should not tie on a Niqab. She may pull down the Jilbab from her head to cover her face around men.
4. A man may put on the clothing of Ihram before reaching the Miqat even in his own house as the Prophet (Pbuh) and his Companions did, but he does not make the intention of Ihram until very shortly before the Miqat.
5. A man may use colourless perfume and a woman may use something odourless before making the intention at the Miqat.
6. When one reaches the Miqat it is obligatory to assume the Ihram – and the mere wish and intention to perform Hajj is not sufficient as that has been with him since leaving his own country, rather he must perform by word and action what will cause him to be in a state of Ihram. So when he recites the Talbiyah then his Ihram is concluded, as is agreed upon by the scholars.
7. The Miqats (places for assuming Ihram) are at five locations. They are for those who live there and those who pass by them intending Hajj or Umrah. Your Hajj guide will inform you before you reach the Miqat so that you are well prepared.
8. Just before reaching the Miqat (if on an airplane) one says the Talbiyah for Umrah only. He stands and faces the Qiblah, and states:
“Labbaikallahummah bi-Umrah. [Here I am O Allah, making Umrah].”
9. If one fears that he or she will not complete the Umrah or Hajj due to illness, he should say:
“Allahummah mahilli haithu habastani. [O Allah, my place is wherever you prevent me].”
Then he should say:
“Allahummah hazihi Umrah, la riya’a fiha wala sum’ah. [O Allah, this is a Umrah, there being no ostentation in it or hypocrisy].”
10. Then he should say the Talbiyah of the Prophet (Pbuh) which is:
“Labbaikallahummah labbaik labbaika la sharika laka labbaik innal hamda wan ni’mata laka wal mulka la sharika laka. [Here I am O Allah, here I am, there is no partner for You, here I am, Verily all praise is for You, and every bounty is from You, and all dominion is Yours – You have no partner].”
Brothers and Sisters! One should raise their voice with this Talbiyah, even the women as long as there is no danger of temptation. When the Grand Mosque (Haram) is reached and the houses surrounding it are seen, one stops the Talbiyah and performs the Umrah.
11. Enter the Grand Mosque with your right foot first and say:
“Allahummah salli ala Muhammad wa sallim – Allahummah aftah-li abwaba rahmatika. [O Allah! Send salutations upon Muhammad and peace. O Allah! Open for me the doors of your Mercy].”
12. Wudu’ (Ablution) is an obligation for Tawaf. Then one should go straight to the Black Stone (Hajar al Aswad) and facing it say:
“Bismillahi Allahu Akbar.”
Then he touches the Black Stone with his hand and kisses it also, and prostrates upon it also if he is able.
13. If it is not possible to kiss it then he touches it with his hand, then kisses his hand. If he cannot touch it he should raise his hand towards it and say:
“Bismillahi Allahu Akbar”, (or just Allahu Akbar) without kissing his hand. And he does that in every circuit. And he must not push the crowds to get to the Black Stone.
14. Then he should begin making Tawaf around the Ka’abah – with the Ka’abah being to his left. He goes around past the Black Stone seven times – from the Black Stone to the Black Stone being one. He wears the Ihram under his right armpit and over the left shoulder throughout the Tawaf. He should walk quickly and with boldness in the first three (called Ramal), from the Black Stone to the Black Stone – this, however, may not be possible for those accompanying womenfolk, young children or the elderly, and there is no harm. Then he walks normally in the rest.
15. And he touches the Yemeni corner (Rukn al Yaman) with his hand each time he passes and does not kiss it, and if he is not able to touch it then he should not make any sign towards it with his hand at all. The other two corners are not to be touched at all.
16. And one should say between the Yemeni corner and the Black Stone:
“Rabbana atina fid-dunya hasanatan wa fil akhirati hasanatan wa qina azaban nar. [Our Lord! Give us good in this world and good in the Hereafter, and defend us from the torment of the Fire].”
17. There is no particular Zikr (prescribed remembrances) for Tawaf – so he may read the Qur’an or utter any Zikr he pleases – individually and not in unison.
18. It is forbidden for a menstruating woman to make Tawaf. Rather she remains in Ihram, waits till she is pure, performs the ritual bath, then she makes Tawaf and Sa’yi.
19. So when he finishes the seventh round, he covers his right shoulder and moves to the Station of Ibrahim (Maqama Ibrahim) and recites:
“Wattakhizu min maqami Ibrahima musalla. [And take the Station of Ibrahim as a place of prayer].”
20. And he places the Station of Ibrahim (Maqama Ibrahim) between himself and the Ka’abah and then prays two Raka’ahs. He recites therein Surah al-Kafirun in the first raka’ah and Surah al-Ikhlas in the second. Avoid walking in front of praying people and always take a person or an object to pray behind.
21. Then after praying he goes to the Zamzam water and drinks from it and pours it over his head.
22. Then he returns to the Black Stone and says: “Allahu Akbar” and touches it, as before, if he is able, otherwise he sets off to make Sa’yi.
23. Then he goes off for Sa’yi between Safa and Marwah (the two small hills). Wudu’ (ablution) is desirable but not obligatory. And when he reaches the foot of Safa he recites:
“Innas safa wal marwata min sha’airillahi faman hajjal baita awi’ tamara fala junaha alaihi an yattawwafa bihima, wa man tatawwa’a khayran fa’innallaha shakirun alim. [Indeed, as-Safa and al-Marwah are among the symbols of Allah. So whoever makes Hajj to the House or performs Umrah – there is no blame upon him for walking between them. And whoever volunteers good – then indeed, Allah is appreciative and Knowing].”
He recites this only on this one occasion and not in every circuit.
24. Then he says (on this occasion only):
“Nabda’u bima bada’allahu bihi. [We begin with what Allah began with].”
25. Then he climbs Safa until he can see the Ka’abah. Facing it, he recites:
“Allahu akbar, allahu akbar, allahu akbar. La illaha illallahu wahdahu la sharikalahu, lahul mulku wa lahul hamdu, yuhyi wa yumit, wa huwa ala kulli shay’in qadir. La ilaha illallahu wahdahu la sharikalahu – anjaza wa’dahu wa nasara abdahu – wa hazamal ahzaba wahdahu.”
He recites this three times and supplicates after each recitation whilst raising his hands.
26. He then descends Safa and heads towards Marwah. He walks till he reaches the green marker and lights, then he runs until he reaches the next green marker.
27. Then he walks up to Marwah and ascends it and does upon it as he did on Safa facing the Qiblah, saying what he said on Safa (See point 25). That then forms one complete circuit.
28. Then he returns till he ascends Safa – walking in the place for walking, and running in the place for running – and that is a second circuit, and so one repeats this till he completes seven circuits finishing on al-Marwah.
29. It is permitted to wear one’s sandals throughout and avoid causing hardship to oneself.
30. Then when he finishes from the seventh circuit upon al Marwah he shortens the hair of his head. The woman cuts a fingertip’s length of her hair – thus ending the Umrah. Now everything that became forbidden to him upon entering the Ihram state now becomes permissible again. He remains in this state until on the 8th of Zul-Hijjah – “YAWM AT-TARWIYAH.”
31. So when it is the morning of the 8th Zul-Hijjah, he puts on his Ihram exactly as he did when assuming Ihram for Umrah (See points 1-6).
However, this time he says the Talbiyah of Hajj with the following words: “Labbaika Hajjah” and does as he did before [at the Miqat] but this time from his residence in Makkah. The menstruating woman who did not make Umrah remains in Ihram, takes a bath and makes the Talbiyah of Hajj.
32. Now he leaves out for Mina before noon, and he prays Zuhr and the rest of the five prayers there – shortening them, and praying them at their correct times without combining.
33. After sunrise the next day, the 9th Zul-Hijjah, he leaves Mina and proceeds to the large area known as Arafah whilst continually reciting the Talbiyah (as in point 10).
34. If possible, he stops at Namirah near Arafah, and listens to the Sermon that is delivered there. Then he prays Zuhr and Asr combined at Zuhr time in congregation – with one Azan (Call to Prayer) and two Iqamahs. And he who is not able to pray along with the Imam, then he prays in the same way on his own, or with those in a similar situation around him. And if one is not able to pray except once he has reached Arafah, then there is no harm in that.
35. He then stays in Arafah for the rest of the day in worship.
36. If he is able, he stands upon the rocks beneath the Mount of Mercy (Jabalur-Rahmah) and if not then all of Arafah is a place of standing, and supplication. And he stands facing the Qiblah, not facing the Mountain, raising his hands, supplicating and reciting the Talbiyah. And he oft-repeats the following as it is the best of utterances on the Day of Arafah:
“La ilaha illallahu wahdahu la sharika lahu – lahul mulk wa lahul hamd – wa huwa ala kulli shai’in qadir.”
37. It is a Sunnah for those at Arafah not to fast.
38. So when the Sun has set he leaves Arafah for Muzdalifah – going with calmness and tranquility, not jostling or pushing the people.
39. Upon reaching Muzdalifah, he calls the Azan and prays Maghrib and Isha’ (shortened), each one preceded with the Iqamah. Then he sleeps till Fajr so he is refreshed, awakes and prays Fajr in its earlier time. However, it is allowed for the weak and women (and their carers) to depart from Muzdalifah after half the night out of fear of the crushing crowds.
40. After the prayer, one stands in Muzdalifah, facing the Qiblah and glorifies Allah and supplicates until the sky becomes very bright. This is now the 10th Zul-Hijjah, the Day of Eid and the Day of Nahr (Sacrifice).
41. Then he sets off to Mina (whilst still reciting the Talbiyah) where he collects seven small stones each one only slightly larger than a chick-pea, whilst heading towards the stoning of “Jamratul-Aqabah.” It is the last of the Jamaraat (Stoning Pillars) and the one nearest to Makkah, and the only one stoned on this day.
42. Once he has reached the Stoning Pillar, he faces it having Makkah to his left and Mina to his right, and stones it with the seven stones uttering “Allahu Akbar” with each throwing. He ceases reciting the Talbiyah with the casting of the last stone. This stoning can be performed anytime during the day right up until the night if one finds difficulty in doing so earlier.
43. So when he has stoned this Pillar everything becomes lawful for him again except sexual relations, even if he has not sacrificed or shaven his head – so he may wear his clothes and use perfume.
44. After the stoning he offers the sacrifice. One sheep per person, or one cow shared between seven, or one camel shared between seven. If one carries out his own slaughtering, he should say whilst slaughtering:
“Bismillahi wallahu Akbar, Allahummah inna haza minka wa laka, Allahummah taqabbal minni. [In the name of Allah and Allah is greater. O Allah, this is from You and for You. O Allah, accept it from me].”
One has the leeway to sacrifice from this day till the last day of Tashriq, the 13th Zul-Hijjah. One eats from the meat, gives it as a gift and gives some of it to the poor.
45. Then he shaves all of his hair off or shortens it, even though it is better to shave for men. The women shorten only by a finger-joint after bunching it together.
46. Then again he heads off to the Ka’abah and makes Tawaf of it seven times just as he did before except that he does not wear the Ihram under his right shoulder nor does he walk briskly in the first three circuits. Then he prays the two Sunnah prayer behind the station of Ibrahim (Maqama Ibrahim), and performs the Sa’yi just as before between Safa and Marwah (See points 11-29).
After this, everything becomes lawful to him, even sexual relations, as he is no longer in Ihram. He prays Zuhr in Makkah or in Mina and drinks from the Zamzam water.
47. And the Sunnah is to do the previous actions of Hajj in order: the stoning, then slaughter, then shaving the head, then Tawaf al-Ifadah, then the Sa’yi between Safa and Marwah. However if he brings something forward in the order or delays something in the order (doing things out of order) then that is permissible, for example performing the Sa’yi before Tawaf, or shaving before sacrificing, etc.
48. The menstruating woman [and the one in post-natal bleeding] does all of these things except for the Tawaf and Sa’yi. So she delays these until she is pure, even if it is days later. She must remain patient until she is pure. If she starts menstruating after the Tawaf al-Ifadah, then she should go and perform Sa’yi and complete the rites of Hajj, and there is no harm. If it is another type of bleeding other than menstrual or post-natal blood, then she completes her Hajj rites as normal.
49. Then he returns to Mina and remains there for the days of Tashriq and their nights.
50. He must stone the three Pillars, each one with seven small stones in each of those days, after midday, just as he did with the Jamrat al-Aqabah. Those too weak or ill may appoint someone to carry out this stoning. So the appointed one stones each Pillar after having stoned it for himself.
51. He begins with the first Jamrah, which is the nearest to Masjid al-Khaif in Mina, and after stoning it he moves on and stands facing the Qiblah for a long time supplicating with his hands raised.
52. Then he comes to the second Jamrah (Pillar) and stones it in the same way, then he moves to the left and stands for a long while facing the Qiblah, supplicating with his hands raised.
53. Then he comes to the third Pillar and it is Jamrat al-Aqabah – and he stones it in the same way – standing so that the Ka’abah is to his left and Mina to his right but does not stand making du’a afterwards.
54. Then on the second day he repeats this stoning and on the third day.
55. Spending two days and nights of Tashriq in Mina are an obligation. The third day is optional and rewardable. So if he leaves after stoning on the second day not remaining for the third day’s stoning, then that is permissible. Additionally he should try and pray in Masjid al-Khaif whilst he is in Mina.
56. And it is lawful for him to visit the Ka’abah and make Tawaf [with seven circuits] during each of the nights of Mina as the Prophet (Pbuh) did.
57. So after completing the stoning on the second or third day of the days of Tashriq – then he has completed the rites of Hajj and therefore returns to Makkah.
58. So when he has finished the rites of Hajj and has decided to travel back home, then he is obligated to perform a farewell Tawaf of the Ka’abah.
59. As for the woman who has performed the Tawaful Ifadah for Hajj and then starts menstruating after that, then she can leave Makkah without performing the Farewell Tawaf.
60. So when he finishes the Tawaf he leaves the Mosque like the rest of the people (not walking backwards!), and he leaves by putting out his left foot first, saying:
“Allahummah salli ala Muhammadin wa sallim – Allahumma inni as’aluka min fadhlika. [O Allah send blessings and peace upon Muhammad. O Allah, I ask You for Your bounty.]”
61. He may carry away with him whatever he can of Zamzam water because of the blessings therein. And that concludes his visit to perform the rites of Hajj and Umrah.
May Allah accept this from His sincere servants who hold tightly to the Sunnah and to the Path of the Companions of Allah’s Messenger (Pbuh), Ameen.
My respected people! I ask Allah to assist us in living by the Quran and Sunnah. I pray that He lets us recognise the truth for what it is and helps us to follow it, and that He lets us see falsehood for what it is and helps us to avoid it.
O Allah! Guide us and protect us from the causes of ignorance and destruction! Save us from the defects of ourselves! Cause the last of our deeds to be the best and most righteous! And forgive all of us. Ameen Yaa Rabb!
Dear Brothers and Sisters! Anything good I have said in my today’s Khutbah (Sermon) is from Allah the Almighty, and any mistakes are my own and we seek refuge in Allah from giving wrong advice and from all forms of calamities and fitnah. And I ask Allah’s forgiveness if I stepped beyond bounds in anything I said or I do.
May Allah be praised; and may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon His Messenger Muhammad and upon his family and Companions.
With this I conclude my Khutbah (Sermon) and ask Allah, the Almighty and the sublime, to forgive all of our sins. So seek his forgiveness, He is all forgiving Most Merciful.
This Jumu’ah Khutbah (Friday Sermon) was prepared for delivery today, Friday, Shawwal 20,1438 A.H. (July 14, 2017), by Imam Murtadha Muhammad Gusau, the Chief Imam of Nagazi-Uvete Jumu’ah and late Alhaji Abdurrahman Okene’s Mosques, Okene Kogi State Nigeria. He can be reached through: +2348038289761.