In The Name Of Allah, The Most Beneficent, The Most Merciful

All perfect praise be to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allah, and that Muhammad is His Servant and Messenger.

To proceed:

Dear Brothers and Sisters! Tribalism is a pernicious belief that has afflicted all human societies in every time period, originating in the worship of idols and reconstructing itself into many ideological forms throughout the ages. In modern times, we know it as the scourges of racism, xenophobia, supremacism, and militarism. In practice, it rears its ugly head to us in the shape of prejudice, bigotry, discrimination, and violence.

Respected Servants of Allah! Allah has commanded us to uphold justice with all other human beings regardless of their race, religion, region, lineage, status, or identity. Allah said:

“O you who believe, be persistently standing firm in justice as witnesses for Allah, even if it be against yourselves or parents and relatives. Whether one is rich or poor, Allah is more worthy of both. Follow not your desires, lest you not be just.” [Qur’an, 4:135]

Brothers and Sisters! Tribalists, by contrast, reject universal standards of justice. They divide the world into the privileged in-group and the demonised out-groups, holding to the slogan, “My people, my tribe (or nation) right or wrong.” Their love of their own people, and hatred of others, causes them to rationalise and justify the unjustifiable.

Love for one’s people is normal and healthy, if it leads to good deeds. But such love that comes at the expense of justice is no praiseworthy love at all.

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Wathilah Ibn Al-Asqa reported that:

“I said, “O Messenger of Allah, is it part of tribalism that a man loves his people?” The Prophet said: No, rather it is tribalism that he supports his people in wrongdoing.” [Sunan Ibn Majah]

Tribalism by this definition has been rejected by Islam in the harshest terms. Tribalism is a form of “blind following” whose adherents live in “ignorance,” an allusion to the pre-Islamic worship of idols.

Jundub Ibn Abdullah reported that: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

“Whoever is killed under the banner of blind following, who calls to tribalism or supports tribalism, then he has died upon ignorance.” [Sahih Muslim]

The Prophet (Peace be upon him) disowned anyone who lives by the ideology of tribalism or supports it in any way. Tribalists might be outwardly Muslims, but in reality Allah will not count them among the true believers.

Jubair Ibn Mut’im reported that: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

“He is not one of us who calls to tribalism. He is not one of us who fights for the sake of tribalism. He is not one of us who dies following the way of tribalism.” [Sunan Abi Dawud]

The Prophet (Peace be upon him) delivered an instructive parable to us about the likeness of one who adheres to tribalism. The tribalist is like a camel who has fallen into a well, dead and rotting, and must be pulled out by his tail.

Abdullah Ibn Mas’ud reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

“Whoever supports his people in oppression is like a dead camel that falls into a well and is pulled out by its tail.” [Musnad of Imam Ahmad]

In another narration, the Prophet said:

“The parable of the one who supports his people upon other than the truth is that of a dead camel which falls into a well and is pulled out by its tail.” [Musnad of Imam Ahmad]

The tribalist who falls into this sin is destroyed, just like a camel that plunges to his death inside a well. The corpse of his sin will poison the well for an entire town, while the townspeople must endure the hideous sight and stench as they remove his carcass from their drinking water. Like the rotting camel, all throughout history we have seen the deadly presence of tribalism in acts of mass oppression, murder, genocide and massacre. Between Arabs, non-Arabs, whites, blacks, etc. Between Hausas, Yorubas, Igbos, Itsekiris, Ijaws, Fulanis, Tivs, Idomas, Agatus, Jukuns, Apos, Madas, Biroms, Kanuris, Baburs, Gwozas, Margis, Mandaras, Chiboks, Igbirras, Igalas, Basas, Okuns, Nupes, Kakandas etc.

Respected Brothers and Sisters! Tribalism takes many different forms, but the mindset is always the same. When tribalists justify themselves in terms of race, this is classic biological racism. Sometimes tribalists justify themselves in terms of culture, claiming their culture must dominate the culture of others, in which case they are simply practicing cultural racism.

Religion itself can be misused to construct and justify an ideology of tribalism. If religion is used to justify violating the human rights of others or to rationalise injustice against out-groups, it has become nothing more than religious racism.

Rather, the religion of Islam teaches us to uphold the rights of all human beings, to walk with humility, and to leave the divine judgment to Allah alone. Even our enemies deserve their basic human rights.

In this regard, Allah informs us about the story of Prophet Musa (Moses), peace be upon him, when he accidentally killed an Egyptian man. Prophet Musa felt great remorse and sought forgiveness from Allah for his mistake, even though the Egyptian Fir’awn (Pharaoh) at the time was violently oppressing the Israelites. An act of violence against this individual Egyptian was not justified, despite the fact that his countrymen were persecuting Musa’s people. Allah the Almighty said:

“Musa entered the city at a time of inattention by its people and found therein two men fighting: one from his faction and one from his enemy. The one from his people called for help against his enemy, so Musa struck him and killed him. Musa said: This is from the work of Satan, for he is clearly a misguiding enemy. Musa said: My Lord, I have wronged myself, so forgive me. And Allah forgave him. Verily, He is the Forgiving, the Merciful. Musa said, “My Lord, for the favour you have bestowed upon me, I will never support the criminals.” [Qur’an, 28:15 -17]

Imam Hasan Al-Basri commented on this verse, saying:

“It was not lawful to kill the unbeliever on that day, in this situation, as the circumstances warranted restraint from fighting.” [Al-Jami’ li-Ahkam al-Qurʼan]

Therefore, even if a group of people are considered our enemies and oppressors, that does not give us license to kill or harm individuals among them without a necessary just cause, such as immediate self-defense. Acts of collective punishment or group vengeance have no place in Islam.

Moreover, as religious people we cannot make divine judgments about an individual’s status with Allah, let alone make sweeping judgments about entire groups of people or tribe. We would do well to remember the fates of the humble sinner and the arrogant worshiper.

Abu Hurairah reported that: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

“Two men among the children of Israel were the opposite of each other. One of them was a sinner and the other would strive in worship. The worshiper would see the sinner and tell him to stop. One day he found him sinning so he said: Stop! The sinner said: Leave me alone, by my Lord, have you been sent to watch over me? The worshiper said: By Allah, Allah will not forgive you or admit you into Paradise. Later their souls were taken and they met in the presence of the Lord of the worlds. Allah said to the worshiper: Did you have knowledge of me or power over what is in my hand? Allah said to the sinner: Enter Paradise by my mercy. And Allah said to the worshiper: Take him to the Hellfire.” [Sunan Abi Dawud]

In other words, it is never fair to compare the best of ourselves to the worst of others, lest we fall into the destructive sin of arrogance. No matter what scheme is used to justify tribalism, whether race, culture, or religion, the outcome is always the same: racist practice. And whoever the tribalists designate as the out-group will suffer prejudice, bigotry, and discrimination meant to enhance the tribalists own privilege at the expense of those they deem inferior.

The method of tribalism is to issue blanket indictments of an entire race, culture, religion, or group of people. They will condemn an entire group for the crimes of a few, or misrepresent an entire group by only examining its worst elements.

As such, the purveyors of Islamophobia claim all Muslims are terrorists, the purveyors of anti-Semitism claim all Jews are supremacists, and the purveyors of racism and tribalism claim people with different skin colours or people with different languages are naturally inferior to themselves. In every case, the tribalists construct a false caricature of their victims to be the straw man for their vicious attacks.

Respected Brothers and Sisters! Islam teaches us to reject such blanket indictments and false generalizations. Some of the Prophet’s (Peace be upon him) Companions began to have bad thoughts about all of the Jews and Christians, but verses were revealed making clear distinctions the righteous and unrighteous among them. Allah the Most High said:

“They are not all the same. Among the people of the Book (Ahlul Kitab) is a community standing in obedience, reciting the verses of Allah during the night and prostrating in prayer. They believe in Allah and the Last Day, and they enjoin what is right and forbid what is wrong and hasten to do good deeds. Those are among the righteous. Whatever good deeds they do will never be denied, for Allah knows well the righteous.” [Qur’an, 3:113-115]

It would be wrong to negatively stereotype an entire religious or ethnic group as evil, with all of its unique and respected individuals and diverse practices. For this reason, the Prophet (Peace be upon him) firmly censured the poets of his time who had a habit of excoriating entire tribes.

Aisha reported that: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

“Verily, the greatest liar among people is a man who insults another man by disparaging the entire tribe.” [Sunan Ibn Majah]

In another narration, the Prophet said:

“Verily, the greatest criminal among people is a poet who disparages the entire tribe.” [Al-Adab al-Mufrad]

Dear Brothers and Sisters! If we accept blanket indictments of an entire group, then we are making a claim of collective guilt that will ultimately lead to collective punishment, and collective punishment is a crime of war. Islam rejects collective guilt and punishment, in words and deeds, because innocent people may never be held accountable for the crimes of others. Allah the Almighty said:

“No soul earns anything except it is upon itself, and none shall bear the burdens of another.” [Qur’an, 6:164]

Abdullah Ibn Mas’ud reported that: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

“No man is to be punished for the crimes of his father or his brother.” [Sunan al-Nasa’i]

Hence, tribalism is the ideological core of all criminals, militants and terrorists, of whether they support state terrorism or vigilante terrorism. The Prophet (Peace be upon him) renounced anyone who fights for tribalistic reasons and eschews the principle of non-combatant immunity in war.

Abu Hurairah reported that: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

“Whoever fights under the banner of one who is blind, raging and shouting for the sake of tribalism, or calling to tribalism, or supporting tribalism, and is killed in this state will have died upon ignorance (Jahiliyyah). Whoever rebels against my nation, striking the righteous and wicked alike and sparing not even the believers and he does not fulfill the pledge of security, then he has nothing to do with me and I have nothing to do with him.” [Sahih Muslim]

When the connection between tribalism and (state or non-state) terrorism is understood, it will not be difficult to see that every violent extremist group, whether white supremacists or Kharijite terrorists, militants or others, all share the same basic tribalist ideology; the only difference between them is their terms of expression.

In sum, Islam rejects all forms of tribalism, racism, bigotry, and collective punishment. We must not construct a false caricature of other groups in order to justify oppression against them. As Muslims, we must take the lead among humankind in upholding principled, universal justice and the natural rights of not only Muslims, but of all human beings.

Dear Servants of Allah! Islam is against all forms of racism and bigotry, on the basis of both revelation and reason. Racism is defined as the belief that one ethnicity is superior to another, or one colour of skin is superior to another, or the people of one country are superior to another. It is a type of prejudice, to pre-judge some demographic of people based upon their benign and arbitrary physical characteristics.

Such repugnant beliefs are the traits of pre-Islamic ignorance (Jahiliyyah). Rather, in Islam, we believe all people are born equal in the sight of Allah and the only characteristic that makes someone superior to another is righteousness (Al-taqwa/piousness).

Allah has dignified the children of Adam, all human beings in the world, with blessed provisions such as reason, intelligence, and empathy. Allah the Almighty said:

“We have certainly honoured the children of Adam and carried them on the land and sea and provided good things for them, and We favoured them over much of what We created, with decisive preference.” [Qur’an, 17:70]

Allah created different races and tribes so that people would recognize each other and learn from each other, not so that the races would fight each other. Ethnic diversity is part of the divine plan, a means of enrichment. Allah the Most High said:

“O people, We have created you male and female and made you into nations and tribes that you may know one another. Verily, the most noble of you to Allah is the most righteous of you. Verily, Allah is knowing and aware.” [Qur’an, 49:13]

In fact, Allah created different skin colours and languages as a sign of His creative power. Just as flowers come in many different colours, all as different divine signs in Allah’s creation, so do human beings come in different colours. Allah the Almighty said:

“Among His signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth and the diversity of your languages and your colours. Verily, in that are signs for people of knowledge.” [Qur’an, 30:22]

Abu Musa reported that: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

“Verily, Allah Almighty created Adam from a handful which He took from the earth, so the children of Adam come in accordance with the earth. Some come with red skin, white skin, or black skin, and whatever is in between: thin, thick, dirty, and clean.” [Sunan al-Tirmidhi]

Great Servants of Allah! Righteousness is the only quality that makes someone virtuous in the sight of Allah, not race, or skin colour, or lineage, or social status, or country of origin. This message against racism and tribalism was delivered by the Prophet (Peace be upon him) during his farewell sermon, demonstrating to us how important it is in Islam.

Abu Nadrah reported that: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said in the final days of the pilgrimage:

“O people, your Lord is one and your father Adam is one. There is no favour of an Arab over a foreigner, nor a foreigner over an Arab, and neither white skin over black skin, nor black skin over white skin, except by righteousness. Have I not delivered the message?” [Musnad of Imam Ahmad]

Uqbah Ibn Amir reported that: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

“No one is better than anyone else except by religion or good deeds. It is enough evil for a man to be profane, vulgar, greedy, or cowardly.” [Shu’ab al-Iman]

Abu Dharr reported that: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

“Behold! Verily, you have no virtue over one with white skin or black skin, except by favour of righteousness.” [Musnad of Imam Ahmad]

Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said:

“A man might say to another man, ‘I am more noble than you,’ yet no one is more noble except by the mindfulness of Allah.” [Al-Adab al-Mufrad]

The Prophet (Peace be upon him) would rebuke his Companions if they ever denigrated people because of their race, lineage, or status. In one well-known incident, he sternly criticized his Companion Abu Dharr for disrespecting Bilal Ibn Rabah because he was of African descent and had dark skin colour.

Abu Umamah reported that: Abu Dharr reproached Bilal about his mother, saying, “O son of a black woman!” Bilal went to the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, and he told him what he said. The Prophet became angry and then Abu Dharr came, although he was unaware of what Bilal told him. The Prophet turned away from him and Abu Dharr asked, “O Messenger of Allah, have you turned away because of something you have been told?” The Prophet said:

“Have you reproached Bilal about his mother? By the one who revealed the Book to Muhammadu, none is more virtuous over another except by righteous deeds. You have none but an insignificant amount.” [Shu’ab al-Iman of Imam al-Bayhaqi]

Dear Servants of Allah! Boasting about lineage and ancestors is forbidden in Islam, since all people are descended from Adam and his wife. No one is better than anyone else because of the family they were born into or the status they inherited. The only criterion of superiority is faith and righteous deeds.

Abu Hurairah reported that: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

“Verily, Allah has removed from you the pride of the time of ignorance (Jahiliyyah) with its boasting of ancestors. Verily, one is only a righteous believer or a miserable sinner. All of the people are the children of Adam, and Adam was created from dust.” [Sunan al-Tirmidhi]

In another narration, the Prophet said:

“O people, Allah has removed the slogans of ignorance from you and the exaltation of its forefathers. The people are only two kinds: either a righteous, Allah-fearing believer dignified to Allah, or a wicked, miserable sinner insignificant to Allah. The people are all the children of Adam and Adam was created from dust. Allah said: O people, We have created you male and female and made you into nations and tribes that you may know one another. Verily, the most noble to Allah is the most righteous of you (Qur’an, 49:13).” [Sunan al-Tirmidhi]

And in another narration, the Prophet said:

“Whoever is slow to good deeds will not be hastened by his lineage.” [Sahih Muslim]

Likewise, tribalism (Al-asabiyyah) is a horrendous sin, which is defined in Islam as loyalty to one’s tribe or family over the principles of justice. The Prophet (Peace be upon him) disavowed himself and Islam from anyone who acts according to the various ideological and cultural manifestations of tribalism.

Jubair Ibn Mut’im reported that: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

“He is not one of us who calls to tribalism. He is not one of us who fights for the sake of tribalism. He is not one of us who dies following the way of tribalism.” [Sunan Abi Dawud]

Dear Brothers and Sisters! Malcolm X, known by his Muslim name Al-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz, was the famous African-American activist who struggled against institutional racism in mid-20th century America. At first, he embraced a path of extremism in his confrontation with white supremacy, but his heart changed when he performed his Hajj pilgrimage to Makkah.

In Makkah, Malcolm X saw all kinds of people of different races and ethnicities united by the Hajj pilgrimage as one brotherhood. He wrote back to his friends in Harlem, saying:

“America needs to understand Islam, because this is the one religion that erases from its society the race problem. Throughout my travels in the Muslim world, I have met, talked to, and even eaten with people who in America would have been considered white, but the white attitude was removed from their minds by the religion of Islam. I have never before seen sincere and true brotherhood practiced by all colours together, irrespective of their colour. During the past eleven days here in the Muslim world, I have eaten from the same plate, drunk from the same glass, and slept on the same rug, while praying to the same God, with fellow Muslims, whose eyes were the bluest of blue, whose hair was the blondest of blond, and whose skin was the whitest of white. And in the words and in the deeds of the white Muslims, I felt the same sincerity that I felt among the black African Muslims of Nigeria, Sudan and Ghana.

We were truly all the same, because their belief in one God had removed the white from their minds, the white from their behaviour, and the white from their attitude. I could see from this, that perhaps if white Americans could accept the Oneness of God, then perhaps, too, they could accept in reality the Oneness of Man, and cease to measure and hinder and harm others in terms of their differences in colour.” [See Malcolm X’s Letter from Makkah]

My Respected people! Muslims must spread this message of Islam to all the peoples of the earth, who still hold onto the sicknesses of racism and tribalism. Even among some Muslims, the scourge of racism exists and persisted, despite the Prophet’s (Peace be upon him) clear guidance. The only way to completely eradicate racism is to embrace the authentic understanding of the oneness of Allah (Tawhid) and then to arrive at its logical conclusion, the oneness of humanity.

Respected Servants of Allah! Islam is egalitarian in the sense that it oppose all forms of racism and tribalism, which incite the pride of one class of people against another. The Quran and Sunnah convey a consistent message on the default equality of all people, with righteousness (Al-taqwa) being the only distinguishing feature that makes someone better than another.

Allah the Almighty said:

“Verily, the most noble of you to Allah is the most righteous of you.” [Qur’an, 49:13]

Abu Nadrah reported that: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

“O people, your Lord is one and your father Adam is one. There is no favour of an Arab over a foreigner, nor a foreigner over an Arab, and neither white skin over black skin, nor black skin over white skin, except by righteousness. Have I not delivered the message?” [Musnad of Imam Ahmad]

These texts, and many others, are explicitly clear in their rejection of hierarchies based upon race or lineage. It is sufficient for the believers to hold fast to their message, regardless of what others might say.

Nevertheless, there was a problematic discourse among classical scholars that claims Arabs have ‘favour’ (fadl) and ‘more virtue’ (afdal) over non-Arabs, in direct contradiction of the plain wording of the Quran and Sunnah.

To make matters worse, this discourse was later co-opted by some modern Arab nationalists in the age of race consciousness. It was used to claim that Islam justifies the superiority of Arabs over all other people, to the point that it is not uncommon to hear some Arabs refer to a black person as abid (slave) or use other derogatory terms. Such racists acts and ideologies have no basis in Islam whatsoever.

The primary text in support of this claim is the following Hadith:

“Verily, Allah has chosen Kinanah from the sons of Isma’il (Ishmael), and he has chosen the Quraish from Kinanah, and he has chosen the tribe of Hashim from the Quraish, and he has chosen me from the tribe of Hashim.” [Sahih Muslim]

A fair reading of this Hadith demonstrates that it is quite far-fetched to infer the ontological superiority of Arabs in all times and places. Rather, this Hadith is similar to what Allah said about other Prophets and nations:

“Verily, Allah chose Adam and Nuh (Noah) and the family of Ibrahim (Abraham) and the family of Imran over the worlds.” [Qur’an, 3:33]

And:

“O Children of Israel, remember My blessing that I have bestowed upon you and that I favoured you over the worlds.” [Qur’an, 2:47]

Allah favours some nations over others by bestowing divine revelation upon them, but it has nothing to do with race, tribe, or lineage. Allah only favours some nations over others because of their righteous deeds.

Imam Ibn Taymiyyah was one of such classical scholar who engaged in the discourse of ‘Arab virtue’ over others. While this discourse is precarious, to say the least, his position was far more nuanced than some have understood. He states that the Arabs were only favoured over others because of their praiseworthy characteristics.

Imam Ibn Taymiyyah said:

“This reason for this favour, and Allah knows best, is because of the quality of their minds, their language, their character, and their deeds. That is the favour, whether it is beneficial knowledge or whether it is righteous deeds.” [Iqtida al-Sirat al-Mustaqim]

Hence, there is nothing superior in the genetic make-up or physical lineage of Arabs to make them better than others. As was mentioned, the only quality to make someone better is righteousness. The most that can be said is that the Arabs were better than other nations at the time Islam was revealed and insofar as they maintain these righteous qualities.

Like the Children of Israel, the Arabs can also lose their divine favour by neglecting the virtues that favoured them in the first place.

Moreover, there is nothing in Islam that privileges Arabs to the exclusion of others. Being an Arab itself is not a requirement for leadership in Islam.

Abu Mas’ud reported that: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

“The best versed in the recitation of the Qur’an should lead the people in prayer. If they are equal in their recitation, then the one most knowledgeable of them in the Sunnah. If they are equal in knowledge of the Sunnah, then the one who first performed emigration. If they emigrated at the same time, then the one who first embraced Islam. No man should lead another man in prayer, nor sit in the honoured place in his home, unless he has his permission.” [Sahih Muslim]

The most qualified to lead the prayer are those who can best recite the Qur’an. This only involves knowledge of the language and modes of recitation, not Arab heritage or culture. Indeed, some non-native Arabic speakers are superior in their knowledge of the Qur’an than native Arabic speakers.

Perhaps the best example of transcending racism in Islam comes from the great Companion Bilal Ibn Rabah. Bilal was originally an African slave before Islam, the lowest class in Arab society, but in Islam he rose to become a leader by virtue of his knowledge, piety, and character.

Umar Ibn Al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, used to say:

“Abu Bakr is our master and he emancipated our master Bilal.” [Sahih al-Bukhari]

In addition, most of the distinguished Muslim jurists in the early generations were freed slaves or non-Arabs.

Some scholars cited the ‘virtue’ of Arabs over others as a condition for ‘suitability’ (kafa’ah) in marriage, meaning it was discouraged for Arabs to marry non-Arabs. Even today, there are Muslim sub-cultures who discourage marriage outside of their tribe or race. As with the ‘virtue’ of the Arabs, it is loosely inferred from texts and is not directly attributed to the Prophet.

Reasonable concerns of cultural compatibility are valid, because a wife and husband should be able to easily relate to each other. However, the only real basic condition for suitability in marriage is the compatibility of religion, not race or anything else.

Imam Malik said:

“Suitability (kafa’ah) for marriage is in religion and nothing else.”

And Ibn Abdul Barr said:

“This is the entire doctrine of Imam Malik and his companions.” [Al-Mughni]

Furthermore, some who harness of the discourse of ‘Arab virtue’ have employed it towards evil, racist ends by citing mere snippets from an otherwise nuanced discourse. They have perverted the reason that classical scholars even discussed this at all.

Imam Ibn Taymiyyah said:

“Indeed, this discourse is completed by two matters, one of which is that it is a duty of the Muslim, when he sees virtues or speaks of them, to follow the path of wise men in religion, the purpose of which is to recognise good, to examine it and endeavour to it; its purpose is not for anyone to be proud over another, or to look down upon another.” [Iqtida al-Sirat al-Mustaqim]

According to Imam Ibn Taymiyyah, the discussion of ‘Arab virtue’ was meant to encourage Muslims to take on the good qualities by which Arabs were favoured: wisdom, knowledge, good deeds, and so on. It was not meant to demean other cultures, races, tribes, or ethnicities.

In sum, Islam teaches the inherent default equality of tribes, races, and ethnicities. The only quality that makes someone better than another is righteousness and its various forms. The classical discourse of ‘Arab virtue’ is problematic in that it is only very loosely based upon the Qur’an and Sunnah, and it has been utilized by contemporary groups for manifestly harmful reasons, both for and against Islam.

As such, Muslims are in no need of this discourse, regardless of the scholars who engaged it in the past. Instead, Muslims should adhere only to the clear, explicit language of the texts on the equality of all people and the virtues by which any person can become truly righteous.

Respected Brothers and Sisters! I ask Allah to assist us in living by the Quran and Sunnah. I pray He lets us recognise the truth for what it is and helps us to follow it, and that He lets us see falsehood for what it is and helps us to avoid it.

O Allah! Guide us and protect us from the causes of ignorance and destruction! Save us from the defects of ourselves! Cause the last of our deeds to be the best and most righteous! And forgive all of us.

Dear Brothers and Sisters! Anything good I have said in my today’s Khutbah (Sermon) is from Allah the Almighty, and any mistakes are my own and we seek refuge in Allah from giving wrong advice and from all forms of calamities and fitnah. And I ask Allah’s forgiveness if I stepped beyond bounds in anything I said or I do.

May Allah be praised; and may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon His Messenger Muhammad and upon his family and Companions.

With this I conclude my Khutbah (Sermon) and ask Allah, the Almighty and the Sublime, to forgive all of our sins. So seek his forgiveness, He is all forgiving and Most Merciful.

This Jumu’ah Khutbah (Friday Sermon) was prepared for delivery today, Friday, 22nd Jumadal-Ula, 1439 AH (9th February, 2018), by Imam Murtadha Muhammad Gusau, the Chief Imam of Nagazi-Uvete Jumu’ah and late Alhaji Abdurrahman Okene’s Mosques, Okene Kogi State, Nigeria. He can be reached through: gusaumurtada@gmail.com or +2348038289761.